Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Hepatitis C
Genital Warts
Candidiasis (yeast infection)
Trichomoniasis
Phthirus pubis (pubic lice)
Genital herpes
Syphilis
Urogenital chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Hepatitis B

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Mostly minor symptoms similar to flu, sometimes nausea.
The disease can run in both acute and chronic form.

How is the infection transmitted?

Mostly through blood.
People who use other people’s needles and syringes are at the highest risk.
Transmission through sex is possible, especially if there are multiple sex partners or if there are body injuries at the time.
It is also possible to get infected if the rules of hygiene are ignored, or in the process of getting a tattoo or piercing.
The causative agent is a virus.
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What to do?

Treatment of the acute stage of the infection in order to prevent its progress to chronic stage.
It is critically important to get early medical treatment!

Possible consequences

50–80% of the infections that are not treated will take the chronic form.
Therefore, successful treatment is not possible for everyone.

How can I protect myself?
  • There is no effective vaccine available.
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Do not share previously used needles and syringes.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

The small flesh-colored warts that can appear on the genitals, around the anus and sometimes in the mouth.
It is a viral disease triggered by the human papilloma virus (HPV).

How is the infection transmitted?

Transmission occurs through a direct contact with the skin and mucous membranes of an infected person, e.g., during unprotected sex.
The causative agent is a virus.

What to do?

  • Administration of drugs or surgical removal.
  • Often, warts emerge again.
  • Your sex partner must also get the treatment!

Possible consequences

Can facilitate the development of cervical carcinoma and/or other forms of cancer of the genitals and anus.
Regular medical checkup is required.

How can I protect myself?
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.
  • Possible protective vaccination for girls and women before the first sexual experience.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Plaque, white vaginal and penile discharges, white discharges in the area of anus and groin. Genital itching and burning can often occur.

How is the infection transmitted?

The pathogen is Candida albicans; this fungus is present on almost all surfaces surrounding us. A physiological imbalance (caused by certain diseases, prolonged intake of antibiotics or some birth control pills, etc.) can trigger the disease that will run in varied forms – from acerbated and to weakened.

What to do?

  • A thorough medical examination, selection and administration of drugs, all this treatment performed only by a physician.
  • Your sex partner must also get the treatment!

Possible consequences

The infection can often occur again.

How can I protect myself?
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.
  • Follow common rules of hygiene (e.g., wash your genitals with warm soapy water at least 1-2 times a day, wash underwear at 60 °C or higher).

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Small, often imperceptible, but often substantial discharge from the urethra or vagina can appear, sometimes, severe pain in the genital area.

How is the infection transmitted?

Mostly through unprotected vaginal or anal sex.
The causative agents are protozoa (single-cell organisms).

What to do?

  • Avoid sexual contact until the completion of the treatment.
  • Your sexual partner must also get the treatment!

Possible consequences

The run of the disease is possible without any noticeable symptoms, that is why the infection is easily spread.

How can I protect myself?
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Itching sensations, mostly in the hairy area around the genitals.
Lice and their eggs (nits) are visible.

How is the infection transmitted?

Upon close body contact.
The causative agents are parasites.

What to do?

  • Special insecticides (drugs) kill lice.
  • Your partner must also be treated!
  • Disinfect your clothes and underwear.

Possible consequences

After effects may include pustular skin diseases.

How can I protect myself?
  • Small chances of prevention.
  • Watch for the symptoms and visit the doctor’s office if required.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Bubbles in the genital or anus area that cause burning, itching, and pain.
Temperature rise and sickliness are possible at the early stages.

How is the infection transmitted?

The herpes virus is transmitted through direct contact with a sick person’s herpetic bubbles.
The causative agent is a virus.

What to do?

  • Proper use of drugs might weaken active inflammatory processes, but successful complete cure is not possible.
  • Symptoms and manifestations often come back.

Possible consequences

Facilitates the development of cervical carcinoma.

How can I protect myself?
  • There is no effective vaccine available.
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Painless hard sore at the point of contact with the causative agent appears, usually on the external genitals (on the penis, vagina, or anus), and also on the lips or in the mouth (sometimes the patient does not even notice it).
Later, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, and moist irritation on the skin and mucous membranes develop.
At this stage, it is urgent to undergo high quality and timely treatment!

How is the infection transmitted?

If the causal bacteria (for example, from syphilitic sores or secretions) are in contact with skin or mucous membranes.
Any part of the body can be infected, but usually the transmission takes place during unprotected sex.
Introduction of the infection is also possible if needles and syringes are shared among people.
In this case, the causative agent is a bacterium.

What to do?

  • Prolonged antibiotic treatment.
  • Avoid sexual contact until the completion of treatment.
  • Your partner must also get the treatment!
  • Transmission from mother to newborn child can be prevented with early treatment.

Possible consequences

If left untreated, the after effects of this disease can trigger brain damage, heart disease, cause damage to blood vessels and other vital organs.

How can I protect myself?
  • Infection can be caused by contact of the skin or the mucous membrane with a pathogenic fluid; also, infection can occur in case of direct contact with a syphilitic sore or skin rash.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety. If unusual symptoms/manifestations are shown, get medical help immediately.
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Often, there are no noticeable manifestations
In men: possible burning sensations when urinating, unusual penile discharges.
In women: possible pain during urination, unusual discharge, bleeding, menstrual irregularities. Often occurs in combination with other sexually transmitted diseases
In both: possible, depending on the type of sexual relations, manifestations in the throat or anus area. Possible eyeglobe inflammation if the causative agent gets into the eye.

How is the infection transmitted?

Through unprotected sex.
Infection of the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane of the eye) is possible by touching with dirty hands.
In this case, the causative agent is a bacterium

What to do?

  • Prolonged antibiotic treatment.
  • Avoid sexual contact until the completion of treatment.
  • Your partner must also get the treatment!

Possible consequences

Chronic inflammation of internal genitals that can cause infertility in both men and women.
Possible inflammation of joints.

How can I protect myself?
  • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
  • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

In men: a burning sensation when urinating, unusual penile discharges.
In women: prolonged pain in the lower abdomen, unusual vaginal discharges (sometimes almost invisible), a burning sensation when urinating
In both:depending on the type of sexual relationships – manifestations in the throat (sore throat) or intestinal symptoms (pain in the small of the back or when defecating)

How is the infection transmitted?

Upon contact of the mucous membrane with a fluid containing causative agents, e.g., during unprotected sex.
In this case, the causative agent is a bacterium.

What to do?

  • Prolonged antibiotic treatment.
  • Avoid sexual contact until the completion of treatment.
  • Your partner must also get the treatment!

Possible consequences

If the treatment started late of the disease was left untreated, severe after-effects may follow.
In women: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus and ovaries.
In men: inflammation of the epididymides and prostatic gland
In both: inflammation can cause infertility.

How can I protect myself?
    • Avoid sexual contact if you are not certain about your partner’s health.
    • Avoid contact with liquids that may contain causative agents.
    • Using condoms reduces the risk of getting infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.

What are the major symptoms of the disease?

Often, the symptoms resemble those of the flu.
Sometimes – nausea, vomiting, jaundice (i.e., yellow skin, light-colored stool and dark urine).

How is the infection transmitted?

The causative agent of Hepatitis B is transmitted from an infected to a healthy person through blood or other body fluids (seminal, vaginal), and extremely rarely through saliva.
The ways of propagation of the Hepatitis B virus are the same as for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the risk of getting infected with Hepatitis B is 50 – 100 times greater.

What to do?

It is critically important to get early medical treatment!

Possible consequences

In 5-10% of the cases, the infection is untreatable and takes the chronic form.
Less evident manifestations and/or symptoms often remain.
Severe liver failure is possible.
The infection can be transmitted at its acute and chronic stage.

How can I protect myself?
    • Vaccination is recommended for children, young people and medical staff.
    • Using condoms reduces the risk of being infected, but does not guarantee absolute safety.
    • Never share needles and syringes with other people.

Pay close attention to the following:

If you notice any manifestations caused by STIs, get to the dermatovenerologist’s office as soon as possible.

Most sexually transmitted diseases can be cured with adequate and timely treatment.

Self-administration of drugs or noncompliance with the doctor’s prescriptions is most likely to transform a disease into its chronic form, and, consequently, cause infertility.

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